Japanese writing

We very much regret, but it is the minimal set of hieroglyphs for studying

In fact, modern Japanese writing at the same time includes: Kanji, Katakana, Hirogana, Arabic numerals and English barbarisms (usually terms and abbreviations), rarely Romaji.

For Japanese students, Japanese is one of the most difficult subjects. A graduate of high school and even the institute knows only a small part of the hieroglyphs. There are several tests for knowing the characters:

Kyoku kanji (教育 汉字, “educational characters”) - the list consists of 1006 characters that Japanese children learn in elementary school (6 years of study). This list was first established in early 1946 and contained only 881 characters. In 1981, it was increased to a modern number. This list is divided by year of study. Its full name is "Gakunenbetsu Kanji" (学年 别 汉字 配 当 表, "Table of hieroglyphs by year of study").

Joyo Kanji (常用 汉字, “permanent use characters”) - the list consists of 1945 characters, which includes “Kyok Kanji” for elementary school and 939 characters for high school (3 years of study). Hieroglyphs that are not included in this list are usually accompanied by a furigan. The list was updated in early 1981, thereby replacing the old 1850 hieroglyphs “Toyo Kanji” (当 用 汉字), which was introduced in early 1946.

The main hieroglyph test in Japan is the Kanji Kent test (日本 汉字 能力 検 定 试 験, Nihon Kanji Noreku Kent Shiken). He tests the ability to read, translate, and write hieroglyphs. The test is conducted by the Japanese government and serves to test knowledge in schools and universities in Japan. Contains 10 basic levels. The most difficult of them checks the knowledge of 6000 characters.

For foreigners there is a lightweight test Nihongi noreku shiken (日本语 能力 试 験, JLPT). It contains 4 levels, the most difficult of which checks the knowledge of 1926 hieroglyphs.

Below is a fairly complete list of hieroglyphs ... if I haven't forgotten anything ... 😌

If you are not confused by the number of characters that you have to learn, then I suggest repeating the character tracing after the small animated selection (Approximately matches the Kanji Kent test 「日本 汉字 能力 検 定 试 験」) on the next page



Kanji

漢字 — Kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. The Japanese term kanji for the Chinese characters literally means "Han characters". It is written with the same characters in the Chinese language to refer to the character writing system, hanzi.

Initially, kanji and Chinese Hanzi were no different from each other: Chinese characters were used to write Japanese text. However, at present there is a significant difference between Hanzi and Kanji: some hieroglyphs were created in Japan itself, some got a different meaning, besides, after World War II, the writing of many kanji was simplified.
I remembered only 75 084 kanji hieroglyphs, but somebody tells me that there are still more of them...

 Be patient please... I draw hieroglyphs slowly... 😌

Hiragana

平仮名 — Hiragana is used to write okurigana (kana suffixes following a kanji root, for example to inflect verbs and adjectives), various grammatical and function words including particles, as well as miscellaneous other native words for which there are no kanji or whose kanji form is obscure or too formal for the writing purpose. Words that do have common kanji renditions may also sometimes be written instead in hiragana, according to an individual author's preference, for example to impart an informal feel. Hiragana is also used to write furigana, a reading aid that shows the pronunciation of kanji characters.


Katakana

片仮名 — Katakana currently, use is reduced mainly to the recording of words of non-Japanese origin. The use of katakans to record the names of animals and plants, as well as a stylistic device in artistic works, is widespread.

Katakana Phonetic Extensions


Romaji

ローマ字 — Romaji is a record of Japanese words in Latin. Used in Japanese textbooks for foreigners, in dictionaries, on railroad and street signposts.

A
a
B
b
C
c
D
d
E
e
F
f
G
g
H
h
I
i
J
j
K
k
L
l
M
m
N
n
O
o
P
p
Q
q
R
r
S
s
T
t
U
u
V
v
W
w
X
x
Y
y
Z
z

Furigana

振り仮名 (ふりがな) — Furigana is a Japanese reading aid, consisting of smaller kana 仮名, or syllabic characters, printed next to a kanji or other character to indicate its pronunciation. It is one type of ruby text. In modern Japanese, it is mostly used to gloss rare kanji, to clarify rare, nonstandard or ambiguous kanji readings, or in children's or learners' materials. Before the post-World War II script reforms, it was more widespread.

Furigana is most often written in hiragana, though katakana, alphabet letters or other kanji can also be used in certain special cases. In vertical text, tategaki, the furigana is placed to the right of the line of text; in horizontal text, yokogaki, it is placed above the line of text.


Punctuation marks

約物 — Japanese punctuation includes various written marks (besides characters and numbers), which differ from those found in European languages, as well as some not used in formal Japanese writing but frequently found in more casual writing, such as exclamation and question marks.

 

Japanese Pangram — Iroha

A pangram (Greek: παν γράμμα, pan gramma, "every letter") or holoalphabetic sentence is a sentence using every letter of a given alphabet at least once. Pangrams have been used to display typefaces, test equipment, and develop skills in handwriting, calligraphy, and keyboarding.
Logographic scripts, or writing systems such as Japanese that do not use an alphabet but are composed principally of logograms, cannot produce pangrams in a literal sense (or at least, not pangrams of reasonable size). The total number of signs is large and imprecisely defined, so producing a text with every possible sign is practically impossible. However, various analogies to pangrams are feasible, including traditional pangrams in a romanization.
In Japanese, although typical orthography uses kanji (logograms), pangrams can be made using every kana, or syllabic character. The Iroha is a classic example of a perfect pangram in non-Latin script.

Iroha Uta
いろはにほへと
ちりぬるを
わかよたれそ
つねならむ
うゐのおくやま
けふこえて
あさきゆめみし
ゑひもせす(ん)

色は匂へど
散りぬるを
我が世誰ぞ
常ならむ
有為の奥山
今日越えて
浅き夢見じ
酔ひもせず(ん)

The Iroha (いろは) is a Japanese poem. Originally the poem was attributed to the founder of the Shingon Esoteric sect of Buddhism in Japan, Kūkai, but more modern research has found the date of composition to be later in the Heian period (794–1179). The first record of its existence dates from 1079. It is famous because it is a perfect pangram, containing each character of the Japanese syllabary exactly once. Because of this, it is also used as an ordering for the syllabary, in the same way as the A, B, C, D... sequence of the Latin alphabet.
The iroha contains every kana only once, with the exception of ん (-n), which was not distinguished from む mu in writing until the early 20th century (see Japanese script reform). For this reason, the poem was frequently used as an ordering of the kana until the Meiji era reforms in the 19th century. Around 1890, with the publication of the Wakun no Shiori (和訓栞) and Genkai (言海) dictionaries, the gojūon (五十音, literally "fifty sounds") ordering system, which is based on Sanskrit, became more common. It begins with a, i, u, e, o then ka, ki, ku... and so on for each kana used in Japanese. Although the earliest known copy of the gojūon predated the iroha, gojūon was considered too scholarly and had not been widely used.
Even after widespread use of gojūon in education and dictionaries, the iroha sequence was commonly used as a system of showing order, just like a, b, c... in English.
For example, Imperial Japanese Navy submarines during the Second World War had official designations beginning with I (displacement 1,000 tonnes or more), Ro (500 to 999 tonnes), and Ha (less than 500 tonnes). Also, Japanese tanks had official designations partly using iroha, such as Chi-ha (ha meaning the third model). Other examples include subsection ordering in documents, seat numbering in theaters, and showing go moves in diagrams (kifu).
The iroha sequence is still used today in many areas with long traditions.
Most notably, Japanese laws and regulations officially use iroha for lower-level subsection ordering purposes, for example 第四十九条第二項第一号ロ (Article 49, Section 2, Subsection 1-ro). In official translation to English, i, ro, ha... are replaced by a, b, c... as in 49(2)(i)(b).
In music, the notes of an octave are named i ro ha ni ho he to, written in katakana.
Musical notes
EnglishABCDEFG
Japaneseイ (i)ロ (ro)ハ (ha)ニ (ni)ホ (ho)ヘ (he)ト (to)
Iroha is also used in numbering the classes of the conventional train cars of Japanese National Railways (now known as JR). I is first class (no longer used), Ro is second class (now "Green car") and Ha is third class (standard carriages).
Some Japanese expressions need knowledge of iroha to understand. The word iroha (イロハ, often in katakana) itself can mean "the basics" in Japanese, comparable to the term "the ABCs" in English. Similarly, iroha no i (イロハのイ) means "the most basic element of all". I no ichiban (いの一番, "number one of i") means "the very first".
Iroha karuta, a traditional card game, is still sold as an educational toy.
Irohazaka (いろは坂), a one-way switchback mountain road at Nikkō, Tochigi, is named for the poem because it has 48 corners. The route was popular with Buddhist pilgrims on their way to Lake Chūzenji, which is at the top of the forested hill that this road climbs. While the narrow road has been modernized over the years, care has been taken to keep the number of curves constant.

Tori Naku Uta
とりなくこゑす
ゆめさませ
みよあけわたる
ひんかしを
そらいろはえて
おきつへに
ほふねむれゐぬ
もやのうち

鳥啼く声す
夢覚ませ
見よ明け渡る
東を
空色栄えて
沖つ辺に
帆船群れゐぬ
靄の中
Ametsuchi no Uta
あめ つち ほし そら
やま かは みね たに
くも きり むろ こけ
ひと いぬ うへ すゑ
ゆわ さる おふ せよ
えのえを なれ ゐて



天 地 星 空
山 川 峰 谷
雲 霧 室 苔
人犬上末
硫黄 猿 生ふ 為よ
榎の 枝を 馴れ 居て


The Ametsuchi no Uta (天地の歌) or Ametsuchi no Kotoba (天地の詞) is a Japanese pangram, authored in the 9th century AD, which is credited as being the oldest perfect pangram in the Japanese language. Its name roughly translates to "Song (or Words) of the Universe".

Taini no Uta
たゐにいて
なつむわれをそ
きみめすと
あさりおひゆく
やましろの
うちゑへるこら
もはほせよ
えふねかけぬ

田居に出で
菜摘むわれをぞ
君召すと
求食り追ひゆく
山城の
打酔へる子ら
藻葉干せよ
え舟繋けぬ