In fact, modern Japanese writing at the same time includes: Kanji, Katakana, Hirogana, Arabic numerals and English barbarisms (usually terms and abbreviations), rarely Romaji.
For Japanese students, Japanese is one of the most difficult subjects. A graduate of high school and even the institute knows only a small part of the hieroglyphs. There are several tests for knowing the characters:
Kyoku kanji (教育 汉字, “educational characters”) - the list consists of 1006 characters that Japanese children learn in elementary school (6 years of study). This list was first established in early 1946 and contained only 881 characters. In 1981, it was increased to a modern number. This list is divided by year of study. Its full name is "Gakunenbetsu Kanji" (学年 别 汉字 配 当 表, "Table of hieroglyphs by year of study").
Joyo Kanji (常用 汉字, “permanent use characters”) - the list consists of 1945 characters, which includes “Kyok Kanji” for elementary school and 939 characters for high school (3 years of study). Hieroglyphs that are not included in this list are usually accompanied by a furigan. The list was updated in early 1981, thereby replacing the old 1850 hieroglyphs “Toyo Kanji” (当 用 汉字), which was introduced in early 1946.
The main hieroglyph test in Japan is the Kanji Kent test (日本 汉字 能力 検 定 试 験, Nihon Kanji Noreku Kent Shiken). He tests the ability to read, translate, and write hieroglyphs. The test is conducted by the Japanese government and serves to test knowledge in schools and universities in Japan. Contains 10 basic levels. The most difficult of them checks the knowledge of 6000 characters.
For foreigners there is a lightweight test Nihongi noreku shiken (日本语 能力 试 験, JLPT). It contains 4 levels, the most difficult of which checks the knowledge of 1926 hieroglyphs.
Below is a fairly complete list of hieroglyphs ... if I haven't forgotten anything ... 😌
If you are not confused by the number of characters that you have to learn, then I suggest repeating the character tracing after the small animated selection (Approximately matches the Kanji Kent test 「日本 汉字 能力 検 定 试 験」) on the next page
漢字 — Kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. The Japanese term kanji for the Chinese characters literally means "Han characters". It is written with the same characters in the Chinese language to refer to the character writing system, hanzi.
Initially, kanji and Chinese Hanzi were no different from each other: Chinese characters were used to write Japanese text. However, at present there is a significant difference between Hanzi and Kanji: some hieroglyphs were created in Japan itself, some got a different meaning, besides, after World War II, the writing of many kanji was simplified.
I remembered only 75 084 kanji hieroglyphs, but somebody tells me that there are still more of them...
平仮名 — Hiragana is used to write okurigana (kana suffixes following a kanji root, for example to inflect verbs and adjectives), various grammatical and function words including particles, as well as miscellaneous other native words for which there are no kanji or whose kanji form is obscure or too formal for the writing purpose. Words that do have common kanji renditions may also sometimes be written instead in hiragana, according to an individual author's preference, for example to impart an informal feel. Hiragana is also used to write furigana, a reading aid that shows the pronunciation of kanji characters.
片仮名 — Katakana currently, use is reduced mainly to the recording of words of non-Japanese origin. The use of katakans to record the names of animals and plants, as well as a stylistic device in artistic works, is widespread.
Katakana Phonetic Extensions
ローマ字 — Romaji is a record of Japanese words in Latin. Used in Japanese textbooks for foreigners, in dictionaries, on railroad and street signposts.
振り仮名 (ふりがな) — Furigana is a Japanese reading aid, consisting of smaller kana 仮名, or syllabic characters, printed next to a kanji or other character to indicate its pronunciation. It is one type of ruby text. In modern Japanese, it is mostly used to gloss rare kanji, to clarify rare, nonstandard or ambiguous kanji readings, or in children's or learners' materials. Before the post-World War II script reforms, it was more widespread.
Furigana is most often written in hiragana, though katakana, alphabet letters or other kanji can also be used in certain special cases. In vertical text, tategaki, the furigana is placed to the right of the line of text; in horizontal text, yokogaki, it is placed above the line of text.
約物 — Japanese punctuation includes various written marks (besides characters and numbers), which differ from those found in European languages, as well as some not used in formal Japanese writing but frequently found in more casual writing, such as exclamation and question marks.
A pangram (Greek: παν γράμμα, pan gramma, "every letter") or holoalphabetic sentence is a sentence using every letter of a given alphabet at least once. Pangrams have been used to display typefaces, test equipment, and develop skills in handwriting, calligraphy, and keyboarding.
Logographic scripts, or writing systems such as Japanese that do not use an alphabet but are composed principally of logograms, cannot produce pangrams in a literal sense (or at least, not pangrams of reasonable size). The total number of signs is large and imprecisely defined, so producing a text with every possible sign is practically impossible. However, various analogies to pangrams are feasible, including traditional pangrams in a romanization.
In Japanese, although typical orthography uses kanji (logograms), pangrams can be made using every kana, or syllabic character. The Iroha is a classic example of a perfect pangram in non-Latin script.
The Iroha (いろは) is a Japanese poem. Originally the poem was attributed to the founder of the Shingon Esoteric sect of Buddhism in Japan, Kūkai, but more modern research has found the date of composition to be later in the Heian period (794–1179). The first record of its existence dates from 1079. It is famous because it is a perfect pangram, containing each character of the Japanese syllabary exactly once. Because of this, it is also used as an ordering for the syllabary, in the same way as the A, B, C, D... sequence of the Latin alphabet.
The iroha contains every kana only once, with the exception of ん (-n), which was not distinguished from む mu in writing until the early 20th century (see Japanese script reform). For this reason, the poem was frequently used as an ordering of the kana until the Meiji era reforms in the 19th century. Around 1890, with the publication of the Wakun no Shiori (和訓栞) and Genkai (言海) dictionaries, the gojūon (五十音, literally "fifty sounds") ordering system, which is based on Sanskrit, became more common. It begins with a, i, u, e, o then ka, ki, ku... and so on for each kana used in Japanese. Although the earliest known copy of the gojūon predated the iroha, gojūon was considered too scholarly and had not been widely used.
Even after widespread use of gojūon in education and dictionaries, the iroha sequence was commonly used as a system of showing order, just like a, b, c... in English.
For example, Imperial Japanese Navy submarines during the Second World War had official designations beginning with I (displacement 1,000 tonnes or more), Ro (500 to 999 tonnes), and Ha (less than 500 tonnes). Also, Japanese tanks had official designations partly using iroha, such as Chi-ha (ha meaning the third model). Other examples include subsection ordering in documents, seat numbering in theaters, and showing go moves in diagrams (kifu).
The iroha sequence is still used today in many areas with long traditions.
Most notably, Japanese laws and regulations officially use iroha for lower-level subsection ordering purposes, for example 第四十九条第二項第一号ロ (Article 49, Section 2, Subsection 1-ro). In official translation to English, i, ro, ha... are replaced by a, b, c... as in 49(2)(i)(b).
In music, the notes of an octave are named i ro ha ni ho he to, written in katakana.
|Japanese||イ (i)||ロ (ro)||ハ (ha)||ニ (ni)||ホ (ho)||ヘ (he)||ト (to)|
The Ametsuchi no Uta (天地の歌) or Ametsuchi no Kotoba (天地の詞) is a Japanese pangram, authored in the 9th century AD, which is credited as being the oldest perfect pangram in the Japanese language. Its name roughly translates to "Song (or Words) of the Universe".